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  • Problems with Paint Application Q & A

    Insufficient Adhesion

    Symptoms: The coating adheres insufficiently to the substrate or previous coats.

    Cause: Unsuitable primer applied Wrong product Damp substrate during painting Contaminated substrate (not cleaned or degreased) Weathered timber not removed before coating Previous Coating Unstable Solution

    Coating layers that are not sound should be removed. Substrate problem should be addressed (cleaning, degreasing, sanding etc.). Apply a new, suitable coating system.

    Insufficient Flexibility

    Symptoms: A crackle effect or cracking appears.

    Cause: Different paint systems intermixed Too brittle paint system caused by ageing Applied product cannot follow the movements of the substrate and/or underlying paint layers Solution

    Remove all coating and apply a new, suitable coating system.

    Peeling of Coating

    Symptoms: Total/local loss of adhesion of paint system.

    Cause: Internal tension in paint films Deformation of substrate Humidity or gas formation Wrong paint sytem Several layers are applied which are not compatible with each other Insufficient flexibility of applied paint Cracking originating from substrate Paint system applied to damp substrate or one with a high moisture content. Solution

    Paint layers that are not sound should be removed. After the appropriate pretreatment, a new system should be applied. Touch up bare spots with primer/undercoat and finish with topcoat.

    Saponification

    Symptoms: The coating is not resistant to alkali. Blisters appear, paint softens and flakes off.

    Cause: Incorrect use of product Application of alkyd based topcoat to alkaline material (e.g. concrete or cement) Humidity problems Caustic stripped surface not neutralised Solution

    Remove all paint layers and apply a new alkali resistent system. Prevent water penetration. Apply an alkali resistent system.

    Soft Paint Film

    Symptoms: The dry film has a soft and weak character.

    Cause: Paint applied too thickly Painted during impossible working conditions With two-component products the wrong mixing ratio is used Solution

    Paint layers that are not sound should be completely removed. Apply a suitable protection system and allow a longer drying time to improve the conditions under which it is painted.

    Floating / Flooding

    Symptoms: Multi colored effect.

    Cause: One of the pigments used floats to the surface causing a multi colored effect (happens mostly with blue, green and violet pigments) Solution

    Sand after drying. Apply a further top coat which doesn’t ‘float’.

    Salt Efflorescence

    Symptoms: A white salt deposit appears, usually on plywood or brickwork.

    Cause: Occurs with some plywoods Excess salts migrate to surface through coating Solution

    Clean down. May re-occur. Apply freshen up coats if necessary.

    Haziness (Blooming)

    Symptoms: At the surface a greyish haze appears which gives the paint a dull glow.

    Cause: Fog and/or humidity during drying Insufficient ventilation Coating over-thinned Solution

    Sand and apply a new top coat.

    Yellowing

    Symptoms: The applied pale color turns yellow.

    Cause: With an alkyd based topcoat this is intrinsic to the binder.

    Solution: Sand and clean. Often solved by altering the chosen color to a grayish option, which makes the problem less visible. Apply waterbased paints, which are less prone to yellowing.

    Lifting

    Symptoms: A wrinkling effect immediately after painting.

    Cause: The applied coat contains aggressive components which will dissolve the undercoat Softening, swelling or separation from the substrate of a dry coat as the result of the application of a subsequent coat Solution

    Apply another type of paint as topcoat or remove old paint layers and apply a new paint system. Use compatible paint products.

    Algae Growth

    Symptoms: The coating surface shows a green growth, usually on north facing timbers.

    Cause: Plants, bushes and trees in close proximity to coating system. High humidity of surroundings and/or moisture content of substrate Solution

    Remove / kill algae/mold and clean substrate. Treat with a fungicidal (or diluted bleach) solution. Scrub dead spores loose, rinse clean and allow to dry fully. Where necessary, redecorate with suitable coating.

    Sagging

    Symptoms: Localized “drips” and “tears” appear.

    Cause: Paint not applied evenly over the surface Coats applied too heavily Paint doesn’t have the right consistency (incorrect thinning) Solution

    Remove by sanding after thorough drying is completed. Apply the coatings thoroughly and and evenly. Apply at the proper viscosity and the recommended wet film thickness.

    Blistering

    Symptoms: Large or small blisters, possibly only in topcoats of the system.

    Generally only local loss of adhesion of paint system.

    Cause: Application over localized contamination (e.g. grease, oil, resin) Humidity or gas vapour formation from the substrate Solvent could be trapped between coats of the paint system if the primer or mid coat has not been allowed to dry fully. Incorrect coating system, e.g. quick drying top coat, at which the contained organic solvent causes blisters. Solution

    Coating layers that are not sound should be removed. After the right pre-treatment against moisture penetration, a new system should be applied. Touch up bare spots with primer and finish with finish topcoat.

    Bleeding

    Symptoms: The bleeding through of contents of the substrate through existing paint layers or systems.

    Cause: Certain timbers such as Western Red Cedar, Oak, Meranti or Idigbo are prone to bleeding Chemicals within timbers prone to bleeding (i.e. timbers with a high natural extractive content) are mobilized by water Colors from previous coatings such as bitumen or creosote can bleed through Problem more prevalent with water-borne coatings. Solution

    Clean the coating surface to make sure that the bleeding components have been removed and apply a fresh coating system. Apply sufficient layer thickness to prevent water from dissolving the bleeding wood content. Apply a full primer. Finish with one or two coats of finish.

    Chalking

    Symptoms: The paint system shows a powdery surface.

    Cause: Normal ageing effect Insufficient outdoor durability of product Product property (high extender content/pigment content/based on epoxy resin) Solution

    Remove powder at the surface. Clean and sand substrate. Touch up bare spots. Finish with one or two coats.

    Craters

    Symptoms: Contamination of the substrate (e.g. silicone, grease, wax) causes surface defects . This results in areas where the coating does not form a complete film over the substrate.

    Cause: Often a silicone or wax contamination Surface not cleaned sufficiently before application When spray-applied: poor film formation Open pored timber Solution

    Clean surface with a suitable emulsion cleaner or silicone remover where appropriate. It may be necessary to remove affected coatings. Primer or base stain should be worked/brushed well into open pored timbers.

    Fish Eyes

    Symptoms: Contamination of the substrate (e.g. silicone, grease, wax) causes surface defects This results in areas where the coating does not form a complete film over the substrate.

    Cause: Usually a (silicone) contamination Insufficiently cleaned substrate When spray-applied: poor film formation solution.

    Sand thoroughly. Clean surface thoroughly with a suitable emulsion cleaner or silicone remover. Finish with one or more topcoats.

    Brushmarks

    Brush marks, orange peel poor leveling etc.

    Cause: The open time of the product is too short Incorrect dilution Unsuitable brush or roller Application conditions too hot or too cold Solution

    Sand thoroughly and apply a further coat to a better standard. Use a good quality brush (synthetic for water-borne coatings

    Blushing

    Symptoms: When humidity is trapped in wood stains or varnishes, white spots/patches may appear.

    Cause: Damp substrate or humid atmosphere when coating was applied or during drying Porous varnish/stain type Water getting in (moisture ingress) Insufficient coats applied, or coats applied too thinly Solution

    Remove old varnish/stain layers; if necessary treat with wood bleach, which will restore the original wood color. Consequently treat with a new system.

    Cracking

    Symptoms: The coating system shows localized cracking, which results in loss of adhesion and flaking.

    Cause: Internal stresses of coating system Deformation or breakdown of the substrate e.g. joints opening, splits in the timber Unsuitable coating system Several layers are applied which are not compatible Insufficient flexibility of applied paint Cracking originating from substrate Moisture on substrate at application Solution

    Coating layers that are not sound should be removed. After the right pretreatment, a new system should be applied. Touch up bare spots with primer and finish.

    Crackle Formation

    Symptoms: A crackle effect appears, random cracks all over the surface

    Cause: Coating system too brittle for the substrate Layers applied too thickly Coatings applied at too low temperature and/or too high relative humidity Applied product cannot follow the movements of the substrate Contamination between layers Solution

    Coating layers that are not sound should be removed. After the right pre-treatment, a new system should be applied.

    Flaking

    Symptoms: Loss of adhesion of coating system on substrate or loss of intercoat adhesion.

    Cause: Insufficient cleaning / degreasing Unsuitable system Insufficiently sanded Damp substrate or high moisture content Condensation on substrate at application Solution Coating layers that are not sound shall be removed. After the correct pretreatment, a new system should be applied. Apply suitable primer/base stain and top coat(s).

    Paint Problem Solver

     

    PAINT BLISTERING:
    blisteringBubbles may be seen resulting from localized loss of adhesion, and lifting of the paint film from the underlying surface.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Applying solvent-based paint over a damp or wet surface. Moisture seeping into the substrate from the outside (less likely with water-based paint). Exposure to high to high humidity or moisture during application or shortly after paint has dried, especially if there was inadequate surface preparation. Entrapment of air in the pores of the substrate being painted. Entrapment of solvents which is commonly caused when paint is over coated before the solvents have sufficiently released.
    SOLUTION: If blisters do not go all the way down to the substrate: Remove blisters by scraping, and sanding, and repaint. Be sure to apply when humidity is below 75% and with good ventilation. If blisters go down to the substrate: Remove the source of moisture. Repair loose coatings; install vents or exhaust fans where possible. Remove blisters as above, remembering to prime before applying the top coat. Seal porous substrates  before priming or painting. This will prevent air from being trapped under the paint causing blisters or moisture intrusion.
    NOTE: Always test for moisture and humidity to confirm the substrate is ready to prime or paint. Never overcoat paint that is still releasing solvents.

    BLOCKING:
    blockingUndesirable sticking together of two painted surfaces when pressed together (e.g., a door sticking to the jamb).
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Not allowing sufficient dry time for the coating before closing doors or windows. Use of low quality satin or gloss paints.
    SOLUTION: Use top quality satin or gloss acrylic water-based paint. Low quality water-based paints can have poor block resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Follow paint label instructions regarding dry times. Acrylic water-based paints generally have better early block resistance than vinyl acetate co-polymer based paints or solvent-based paints; however, solvent-based paints develop superior block resistance over time. Application of talcum powder can relieve persistent blocking.

    BURNISHING:
    burnishIncrease in gloss or sheen of paint film when subjected to rubbing, scrubbing or having an object brush up against it.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of matte paint in high traffic areas, where a higher sheen level would be desirable. Frequent washing and spot cleaning. Objects (furniture, for example) rubbing against the walls. Use of lower grades of paint with poor stain and scrub resistance (see Poor Stain Resistance and Poor Scrub Resistance).
    SOLUTION: Paint heavy wear areas that require regular cleaning (e.g., doors, window sills and trim) with a top quality water-based paint, because this type of paint offers both durability and easier cleaning capability. In high traffic areas, choose a satin or gloss rather than a matt sheen level. Clean painted surfaces with a soft cloth or sponge and non-abrasive cleansers; rinse with clean water.

    CHALKING:
    chalkingFormation of fine powder on the surface of the paint film during weathering which can cause color fading. Although some degree of chalking is a normal, desirable way for a paint film to wear, excessive film erosion can result from heavy chalking.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of a low-grade, highly pigmented paint. Use of an interior paint for an outdoor application.
    SOLUTION: First, remove as much of the chalk residue as possible, scrubbing with a stiff bristle brush (or wire brush on masonry) and then rinse thoroughly; or use power washing equipment. Check for any remaining chalk by running a hand over the surface after it dries. If noticeable chalk is still present, apply a quality oil-based or acrylic latex primer (or comparable sealer for masonry), then repaint with a quality exterior coating; if little or no chalk remains and the old paint is sound, no priming is necessary.

    CRACKING / FLAKING:
    cracking_flakingThe splitting of a dry paint film through at least one coat as a result of aging, which ultimately will lead to complete failure of the paint. In its early stages, the problem appears as hairline cracks; in its later stages, flaking occurs.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality paint that has inadequate adhesion and flexibility. Over thinning or overspreading the paint. Inadequate surface preparation, or applying the paint to bare wood without first applying a primer. Excessive hardening of solvent-based paint as the paint job ages.
    SOLUTION: Remove loose and flaking paint with a scraper or wire brush, sanding the surface and feathering the edges. If the flaking occurs in multiple layers of paint, use of a face filler may be necessary. Prime bare wood areas before repainting. Use of a top quality primer and top coat should prevent a recurrence of the problem.

    DIRT PICK UP:
    dirtpickupAccumulation of dirt, dust particles and/or other debris on the paint film; may resemble mildew.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of a low quality paint, especially lower grades of satin or semi-gloss. Soil splashing onto siding. Air pollution, car exhaust and flying dust collecting on house body and horizontal trim.
    SOLUTION: Wash off all surface dirt before priming and painting, using a scrub brush and detergent solution, followed by a thorough rinsing with a garden hose. Heavier dirt accumulations may require the use of a power washer. While dirt pickup can’t be eliminated entirely, top quality exterior latex paints typically offer superior dirt pickup resistance and wash-ability. Also, higher gloss paints are more resistant to dirt pickup than flat paints, which are more porous and can more easily entrap dirt.

    FOAMING / CRATERING:
    foamingFormation of bubbles (foaming) and resulting small, round concave depressions (cratering) when bubbles break in a paint film, during paint application and drying.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Shaking a partially filled can of paint. Use of low quality paint or very old water based paints. Applying (especially rolling) paint too rapidly. Use of a roller cover with wrong nap length. Excessive rolling or brushing of the paint. Applying a gloss or satin paint over a porous surface.
    SOLUTION: All paints will foam to some degree during application; however, higher quality paints are formulated so the bubbles break while the paint is still wet, allowing for good flow and appearance. Avoid excessive rolling or brushing of the paint or using paint that is more than a year old. Apply gloss and satin paints with a short nap roller, and apply an appropriate sealer or primer before using such paint over a porous surface. Problem areas should be sanded before repainting.

    FROSTING:
    frostingA white, salt-like substance on the paint surface. Frosting can occur on any paint color, but it is less noticeable on white paint or lighter tints. On masonry, it can be mistaken for efflorescence (see Efflorescence and Mottling).
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Forms mostly in protected areas (such as under eaves and on porch ceilings) that do not receive the cleansing action of rain, dew and other moisture. Use of dark-colored paints that have been formulated with calcium carbonate extender.
    Application of a dark-colored paint over a paint or primer containing calcium carbonate extender.
    SOLUTION: Frosting can be a stubborn problem. It often cannot be washed off readily. Moreover, the condition can recur even as a bleed-through when a new top coat is applied. In extreme cases, it can interfere with adhesion. The best remedy is to remove the frosting by wire brushing masonry or sanding wood surfaces; rinse, then apply an alkyd-based primer before adding a coat of high quality exterior paint.

    INCOMPATIBILITY:
    incompatibilityLoss of adhesion where many old coats of alkyd or oil-based paint receive a latex top coat.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of water-based latex paint over more than three or four coats of old alkyd or oil-based paint may cause the old paint to “lift off” the substrate.
    SOLUTION: Repaint using another coat of alkyd or oil-based paint. Or completely remove the existing paint and prepare the surface – cleaning, sanding and spot-priming where necessary – before repainting with a top quality latex exterior paint.

    LAPPING:
    InteriorLapping_thumbAppearance of a denser color or increased gloss where wet and dry layers overlap during paint application.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Failure to maintain a “wet edge” when painting. Use of a low solids “economy” paint.
    SOLUTION: Maintain a wet edge when painting by applying paint toward the unpainted area and then back into the just painted surface. This technique (brushing or rolling from “wet to dry” rather than vice versa) will produce a smooth uniform appearance. It is also wise to work in manageable size areas; plan for interruptions at a natural break, such as a window, door or corner. Using a top quality acrylic water based paint makes it easier to avoid lapping problems because higher solids (pigments and binder) content makes lapped areas less noticeable. If substrate is very porous, it may need a primer/sealer to
    prevent paint form drying too quickly and reducing wet edge time. Solvent-based paints generally have superior wet edge properties.

    FUNGAL CONTAMINATION:
    Black, grey or brown spots or areas on the surface of paint or sealant.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, or receive little or no direct sunlight (e.g., bathrooms, kitchens and utility rooms). Use of a solvent-based paint, or lower quality water-based paint. Failure to prime bare wood surface before applying the paint. Painting over a substrate or coating on which fungal contamination has not been removed.
    SOLUTION: Test for fungus by applying a few drops of household bleach to the area; if it is bleached away, the dis-colorant is probably fungus. Remove all fungus from the surface by scrubbing with a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three parts water) or a fungicidal wash, while wearing rubber gloves and eye protection. Rinse thoroughly. To protect against fungal contamination, use a top quality water-based paint, and clean when necessary with bleach/detergent solution. Consider installing an exhaust fan (which is connected to a light switch) in high moisture areas. Some products, with fungicidal claims are available, which you may consider.

    MOLD/MILDEW:
    mildewinBlack, gray or brown spots or areas on the surface of paint or caulk.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Forms most often on areas that tend to be damp, or receive little or no direct sunlight (e.g., bathrooms, kitchens and laundry rooms). Use of an alkyd or oil-based paint, or lower quality latex paint. Failure to prime bare wood surface before applying the paint. Painting over a substrate or coating on which mildew has not been removed.
    SOLUTION: Test for mildew by applying a few drops of household bleach to the area; if it is bleached away, the dis-colorant is probably mildew. Remove all mildew from the surface by scrubbing with a diluted household bleach solution (one part bleach, three parts water), while wearing rubber gloves and eye protection. Rinse thoroughly. To protect against mildew, use a top quality latex paint, and clean when necessary with bleach/detergent solution. Consider installing an exhaust fan in high moisture areas.

    MUD CRACKING:
    mud_crackDeep, irregular cracks resembling dried mud in dry paint film.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Paint applied too thickly, usually over a porous surface. Paint applied too thickly, to improve inherent poor hiding (coverage) of a lower quality paint. Paint is allowed to build up in corners upon application.
    SOLUTION: Remove coating by scraping and sanding. Prime and repaint, using a top quality water-based paint. Mud-cracked areas can also be repaired by sanding the surface smooth before repainting with a top quality water-based paint. This type of paint is likely to prevent recurrence of mud cracking, because it is relatively more flexible than solvent-based paint, and ordinary water-based paint. Quality paints have a higher solids content, which reduces the tendency to mud crack. They also have very good application and hiding properties, which minimize the tendency to apply too thick a coat of paint.

    PEELING:
    peelingLoss of paint due to poor adhesion. Where there is a primer and top coat, or multiple coats of paint, peeling may involve some or all coats.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Seepage of moisture through un-caulked joints, worn caulk or leaks in roof or walls. Moisture in the form of water, rain, dew or high humidity allowed on surface before it has fully cured. Excess moisture escaping through exterior walls (more likely if paint is oil-based). Inadequate surface preparation. Applying paint over a wet or contaminated surface. Improper application techniques. Earlier blistering of paint (see Blistering).
    SOLUTION: Always make moisture assessment and planning part of paint preparation and application. Carefully schedule interior and exterior paint work during an acceptable weather window. Identify and eliminate moisture sources in advance. Prepare surface by removing all loose paint, contaminates and moisture. Strictly adhere to manufacturers application guidelines. Use paint and primer according to application instructions and standard industry practices. Thoroughly remove corrupted peeling paint, repaint with a top quality paint products.

    PICTURE FRAMING:
    picture_framingAn effect of non uniform color that can appear when a wall is painted with a roller, but is brushed at the corners, architraves and cornices. The brushed areas generally appear darker, resembling the “frame” of a “picture”. Also, sprayed areas may be darker than neighboring sections that are brushed or rolled. Picture framing can also refer to sheen effects.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Usually a hiding (coverage) effect. Brushing will generally result in lower spread rates than rolling, producing a thicker film and more hiding. Adding colorant to a non-tintable paint or using the wrong type or level of colorant, resulting in variation in color, depending on method of application.
    SOLUTION: Make sure that spread rates with brushes and rollers are similar. Don’t cut in the entire room before roller coating. Work in smaller sections of the room to maintain a “wet edge.” With tinted paints, be sure the correct colorant-base combinations are used.

    POOR FLOW / LEVELING:
    poor flowFailure of paint to dry to a smooth film, resulting in unsightly brush and roller marks after the paint dries.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality paint. Application of additional paint to “touch up” partially dried painted areas. Re-brushing or re-rolling partially dried painted areas. Use of the wrong type of roller cover or poor quality brush.
    SOLUTION: Use top quality water-based paints, which are generally formulated with ingredients that enhance paint flow. Brush and roller marks thus tend to “flow out” and form a smooth film. When using a roller, be sure to use a cover with the recommended nap length for the type of paint being used. Use of a high quality brush is important; a poor brush can result in bad flow and leveling with any paint.

    POOR HIDE:
    poor_hidingFailure of dried paint to obscure or “hide” the surface to which it is applied.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of low quality paint. Use of low quality tools/wrong roller cover. Use of an improper combination of tinting base and tinting color. Poor flow and leveling (see Poor Flow/Leveling). Use of a paint that is much lighter in color than the substrate, or that primarily contains low-hiding organic pigments such as yellows, reds and blues. Application of paint at a higher spread rate than recommended.                                                                                             SOLUTION: If the substrate is significantly darker or is a patterned wallpaper, it should be primed before applying a top coat. Use a top quality paint for better hiding and flow. Use quality tools; use the recommended roller nap, if rolling. Follow manufacturer’s recommendation on spread rate; if using tinted paint, use the correct tinting base. Where a low-hiding organic color must be used, apply a primer first.

    POOR IMPRINT RESISTANCE:
    poor_printThe tendency of paint film to take on the imprint of an object that is placed on it (e.g., a shelf, table, window sill or counter-top with books, dishes and other objects on them).
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of low quality satin or gloss paint. Putting a painted surface back into use before paint has fully dried.
    SOLUTION: Use top quality acrylic satin or gloss water-based paint. Low quality water-based satin and gloss paints can have poor print resistance, especially in warm, damp conditions. Acrylic water-based paints generally have better print resistance than vinyl acetate co polymer type paints. Fully cured solvent-based paints also have excellent print resistance. Make sure the recommended “cure” time is allowed for the paint before it is put into service. Cool or humid conditions require more curing time.

    POOR SCRUB RESISTANCE:
    poor_scrubWearing away or removal of the paint film when scrubbed with a brush, sponge, or cloth.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Choosing the wrong sheen for the area. Use of a lower quality paint. Use of an overly aggressive scrub medium (see Burnishing). Inadequate dry time allowed after application of the paint before washing it.
    SOLUTION: Areas that need frequent cleaning require a high quality paint formulated to provide such performance. High traffic areas may require a satin or gloss paint rather than a matte paint to provide good scrub resistance. Allow adequate dry time, as scrub resistance will not fully develop until the paint is thoroughly cured. Typically, this will be one week. Try washing the painted surface with the least abrasive material and mildest detergent first.

    POOR SHEEN UNIFORMITY:
    poor_sheenShiny spots or dull spots on a painted surface; uneven gloss.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Uneven spread rate. Failure to properly prime a porous surface, or surface with varying degrees of porosity. Poor application resulting in lapping (see Lapping).
    SOLUTION: New substrates should be primed/sealed before applying the top coat to ensure a uniformly porous surface. Without the use of a primer or sealer, a second coat of paint will more likely be needed. Make sure to apply paint from “wet to dry” to prevent lapping. Often, applying an additional coat will even out sheen irregularities.

    POOR STAIN RESISTANCE:
    poor_stainFailure of the paint to resist absorption of dirt and stains.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality paint that is porous in nature. Application of paint to unprimed substrate.
    SOLUTION: Higher quality water-based paints contain more binder, which helps prevent stains from penetrating the painted surface, allowing for easy removal. Priming new surfaces provides maximum film thickness of a premium top coat, providing very good stain removability.

    “STIPPLE” / ROLLER MARKS:
    roller_marksUnintentional textured pattern left in the paint by the roller.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of incorrect roller cover. Use of lower grades of paint. Use of low quality roller. Use of incorrect rolling technique.
    SOLUTION: Use the proper roller cover; avoid too long a nap for the paint and the substrate. Use quality roller to ensure adequate film thickness and uniformity. High quality paints tend to roll on more evenly due to their higher solids content and leveling properties. Pre-dampen roller covers used with water-based paint; shake out excess water. Don’t let paint build up at roller ends. Begin rolling at a corner near the ceiling and work down the wall in sections. Spread the paint in a zigzag “M” or “W” pattern, beginning with an upward stroke to minimize spatter; then, without lifting the roller from the surface, fill in the zigzag pattern with even, parallel strokes. On doors, if rolled, lay off with a brush.

    SPLATTER:
    Interior_Roller_Spattering_thumbTendency of a roller to throw off small droplets of paint during application.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of exterior paint on an interior surface. Use of lower grades of water-based paints.
    SOLUTION: Higher quality paints are formulated to minimize splattering. Using high quality rollers which have proper resiliency further reduce splattering. In some cases, a quality wall paint may be preferred for ceiling work, for maximum splatter resistance. Overloading the roller with paint will result in excess splatter, as will overworking the paint once it is applied to a substrate. Working in sections, applying the paint in a zigzag “M” or “W” pattern and then filling in the pattern will also lessen the likelihood of splattering.

    SAGGING / RUNNING:
    saggingDownward “drooping” movement of the paint film immediately after application, resulting in an uneven coating.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Application of a heavy coat of paint. Application in excessively humid and/or cool conditions. Application of over thinned paint. Airless spraying with the gun too close to the substrate being painted.
    SOLUTION: If the paint is still wet, immediately brush out or re-roll to redistribute the excess evenly. If the paint has dried, sand, and reapply a new coat of top quality paint. Correct any unfavorable conditions: Do not thin the paint; avoid cool or humid conditions; sand glossy surfaces. Paint should be applied at its recommended spread rate; avoid “heaping on” the paint. Two coats of paint at the recommended spread rate are better than one heavy coat, which can also lead to sagging. Consider removing doors to paint them supported horizontally.

    SEALANT FAILURES:
    caulk_failLoss of sealant’s initial adhesion and flexibility, causing it to crack and/or pull away from the surfaces to which it has been applied.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Use of lower quality sealant. Use of wrong type of sealant for a particular application. Substrate not dry.
    SOLUTION: Use a top quality water-based pure acrylic or silicon acrylic sealant if prolonged contact with water is not anticipated. These sealants are flexible enough to adapt to minor fluctuations in the substrate, stretching in gaps that widen slightly over time. They also adhere to a wide range of interior and exterior building materials, including wood, ceramic tile, concrete, plaster, bare aluminum, brick and
    plastic. With glass as the substrate silicon sealants are most suitable.
    NOTE: Silicone sealant should not be painted.

    SURFACTANT LEACHING:
    surfactantConcentration of water-soluble ingredients on the surface of a water-based paint, typically on a ceiling surface in rooms that have high humidity (e.g., shower, bathroom, kitchen); may be evident as tan or  brown spots or areas, and can sometimes be glossy, soapy or sticky.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: All water-based paint formulas will exhibit this tendency to some extent if applied in areas that become humid (bathrooms, for example), especially in ceiling areas.
    SOLUTION: Wash the affected area with soap and water, and rinse. Problem may occur once or twice again before leaching material is completely removed. When paint is applied in a bathroom, it is helpful to have it dry thoroughly before using the shower. Remove all staining before repainting.

    TANNIN STAINING:
    tannin stainingBrownish or tan discoloration on the paint surface due to migration of tannins from the substrate through the paint film. Typically occurs on “staining woods,” such as redwood, cedar and mahogany, or over painted knots in certain other wood species.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Failure to adequately prime and seal the surface before applying the paint. Use of a primer that is not sufficiently stain-resistant. Excess moisture escaping through the exterior walls, which can carry the stain to the paint surface.
    SOLUTION: Correct any possible sources of excess moisture (see Efflorescence and Mottling). After thoroughly cleaning the surface, apply a high quality stain- resistant oil-based or acrylic latex primer. Oil based stain-resistant primers are the best type to use on severely staining boards. In extreme cases, a second coat of primer can be applied after the first has dried thoroughly. Finish with a top quality latex paint.

    WRINKLING:
    wrinklingA rough, crinkled paint surface, which occurs when uncured paint forms a “skin”.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Paint applied too thickly (more likely when using solvent-based paints). Painting during extremely hot weather or cool damp weather, which causes the paint film to dry faster on top than on the bottom. Exposing uncured paint to high humidity levels. Painting over a contaminated surface (e.g., dirt or wax).
    SOLUTION: Scrape or sand substrate to remove wrinkled coating. If using a primer, allow it to dry completely before applying top coat. Repaint (avoiding temperature/humidity extremes), applying an even coat of top quality interior paint.

    YELLOWING:
    yellowingDevelopment of a yellow cast in aging paint; most noticeable in the dried films of white paints or clear varnishes.
    POSSIBLE CAUSES: Oxidation of solvent-based paint or varnish. Heat from ovens, radiators and heating ducts. Lack of light (e.g., behind pictures or appliances, inside cupboards, etc.).
    SOLUTION: Top quality water-based paints do not tend to yellow, nor does non-yellowing varnish. Solvent-based paints, because of their curing mechanism, do tend to yellow, particularly in areas that are protected from sunlight.

    How Do I Choose the Correct Supermarine Paint?

    In the vast market of marine paint there are so many differing products to choose from that it is easy to be overwhelmed! We at the Bottom Paint Store want to make this part of the painting process as easy for you as possible. In this How To Article, we will briefly consider a few popular Supermarine Paints and when one product might be used in place of another.

    Note: None of the Supermarine Products mentioned are Bottom Paints or Antifouling. For more information about which antifouling paint to select for your boat, please click this link. The products here are designed for application both above and below the waterline. Just because a paint product is not “bottom paint” or an antifouling coating does not mean that it can’t be used on the bottom of a boat.  Click the links to go directly to the product page. Read over the Description, Specifications, and How to Use tabs for more detailed information.

    Supermarine Revolution Paint

    • Supermarine RevolutionBest choice if applying by roller or brush – self levels very well
    • Single stage formula is easy to work with
    • Choice of sheen and wide color variety
    • Non-toxic to humans and pets when fully cured
    • Prime most surfaces with SM-664D Etching Primer

     

    Supermarine Mono Epoxy Paint

    • Mono EpoxyBest choice if applying with spray gun – spraying yields better results than brush or rolling
    • Single stage epoxy formula – less hassle than a 2 part epoxy
    • Choice of sheen and wide color variety
    • Non-toxic to humans and pets when fully cured
    • Prime most surfaces with SM-664D Etching Primer

     

    Supermarine Aqueous Epoxy Paint 

    • SM-3000Supermarine’s Water-based Epoxy coating – thin and clean up with tap water
    • May be applied to existing paint in sound condition without primer
    • Choice of sheen and wide color variety
    • Non-toxic to humans and pets when fully cured
    • Prime most new surfaces with SM-664D Etching Primer

     

    Supermarine 2 Part Epoxy Paint

    • sm-2020Best choice if you need a super durable coating – 2 part epoxy is the Supermarine workhorse product
    • Can be used on many surfaces and in many applications – very versatile
    • Choice of sheen and wide color variety
    • Non-toxic to humans and pets when fully cured
    • For Primer recommendation see Product Specifications Tab

     

    Supermarine Ironside Urethane Paint

    • Best choice for “Top of the Line” durability – The Ultimate rough and tough coating
    • Withstands temperatures up to 500° F and corrosive chemicals
    • Two Component Acrylic Polyurethane finish
    • Choice of sheen and wide color variety
    • For Primer recommendation see the Product Specifications Tab

     

    How Much Pool Paint Do I Need for My Pool?

    There are a couple of factors to consider when determining how much pool paint that you need to paint your pool.

    1. Is the surface porous, rough, or bare? If so, you may need about 25% more product then what is stated in the formula below. This will allow for the absorbtion of the 1st coat of swimming pool paint to properly cover bare, rough, or a sandblasted surface.

    2. They type of pool paint you use also factors in to how much you will need.

    Pool Paint Coverage Calculation

    1. First you need to determine the square footage of your pool. To do this use this formula: (Length of the Pool) x (Width of the Pool) x (1.7) = Estimated square footage of your pool

    Example:  If you pool is 35ft long and 15 ft wide, then you would use this formula:

    Example: 35 x 15 x 1.7 = 892.50 square feet

    2. Next, you need determine the total pool paint coverage with two coats of pool paint. Since you need 2 coats when applying any pool paint, you need double this amount:

    Example: 892.50 x 2 = 1785 total square feet of coverage needed

    3. If the type of paint you are using is a 2 gallon epoxy kit such as:

    Then divide the above amount by 500. This number will give you the total number of 2 gallon kits needed. (Remember to always round up!)

    Example: 1785 / 500 = 3.57 or 4 –  2 gallon kits ( add 25% for bare, rough, or a sandblasted surface which would be 4.66 or  rounding up to 5 –  2 gallon kits!)

    If you are using any other gallon of pool paint such as:

    Then divide the number by 300. This number will give your the total number of gallons needed. (Remember to always round up!)

    Example: 1785 / 300 = 5.95 or 6 gallons ( add 25% for bare, rough, or a sandblasted surface which would be 7.44 or  rounding up to 8 gallons!)

    Good luck with your pool painting project!

    POOL PAINT PRODUCTS |QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    POOL PAINT PRODUCT

    QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    Pool Guard EHBWhat Pool Paint Is Best Suited For A Fiberglass Pool Application? The only product we recommend for a fiberglass pool is our Pool Guard EHB high build epoxy pool paint.

    Will the finish of my pool paint dull over time? Typically, pool paint does dull slightly over time, due to the effects of chlorine & UV sun. However, the coatings for National Pool Finishes are loaded with UV stabilizers to slow down this effect.

    What Pool Paint Is Best Suited For A Spa, Hot Tub Or Jacuzzi? Due to high temperature of the water in a spa, Pool Guard EHB is the only coating we recommend.

    How Can I Upgrade My Pool From A Chlorinated Rubber Finish To An Epoxy Finish? You can prime your chlorinated rubber coated pool with our 2 Part water based Epoxy Primer  – Pool Grip, and then topcoat with either Pool Guard EHB or Pool Guard. You can also apply Pool Shield and Pool Shield CRX without the water based epoxy Primer.

    Is There A Non-Slip Product That I Can Use For My Deck Or Around My Pool? Deck Kote is what we recommend, & you can add 1 lb. of nonskid to make the deck less slippery, especially when wet.

    Pool Guard EHBWhat Type Of Finish Will I Get With Pool Guard EHBYou will get a beautiful tile-like finish. Pool Guard EHB formulation fills in hairline cracks if needed to give you a beautiful finish.

    What Are The Primary Reasons For Unsatisfactory Product Performance? The three main reasons for unsatisfactory product performance is the improper preparation of the pool, not following label directions correctly, & weather / moisture which effects proper curing of the paint.

    What are the proper storage guidelines for Pool Paint? Store in temperature of 50-90 degrees is ideal. What can we do to make our pool like it’s plastered? We recommend using Pool Guard EHB, which will give a tile like finish at a significantly less cost than plastering.

    How many coats of paint do you recommend? 2 coats of paint are required and no primer (self-priming) is needed for a perfect paint job.

    Can I use Deck Kote on my concrete driveway? Yes, you can use Deck Kote on concrete driveways but definitely not on blacktops.

    Are Dark Colors Such As Royal Blue and Black Recommended For Application Over The Entire Pool Surface? No. For safety of children and for cleanliness, dark colors are not recommended for general use of swimming pools, only for striping.

    What Causes Paint To Chalk Or Fade? Chlorine Shock or UV Sun causes paint to chalk or fade. National uses UV stabilizers to slow down the effects of UV sun & chlorine shock.

    How much square footage would I expect on 1st & 2nd coat? The square footage is typically 300 square feet per gallon, with up to 50% less on the first coat to the second coat. This depends on how much the product is soaks into the surface, & how much paint is applied as well on the first coat.

    How long does paint take to dry-to touch? Typically a paint will dry in 4-6 hours, but can dry quicker depending on film thickness, temperature and humidity.

    Are Custom Colors Available? Yes, 140 custom colors are available for pool paint your coating needs. Look for the color chart under each product or give us a call.

    Are Pool Paint Products Available In Size Other Than Gallons? All products are packaged in gallons which is the perfect size for refinishing your recreational swimming pool. 5 gallon cans are available for Commercial Pools.

    POOL PAINT COMPATIBILITY | QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    POOL PAINT COMPATIBILITY

    QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    Pool Guard EHBCan National Pool Finishes Products Be Used In Pools Using Salt Generation Systems? Yes, Pool Guard EHB because it’s the only product that stands up to salt water generators.

    Our your National Pool Paints Safe For Fish Ponds, such as a Koi Ponds? Yes. All of the pool paints that we carry are non toxic to fish as long as the are fully cured prior to introducing the fish. We recommend  Pool Guard EHB since it is the most durable and has a 10 year warranty.

    Can I Use Pool Paint products For Potable Water Tanks? No. The products are made for strictly swimming pools.

    How do I repair my surface before painting? If it’s a hairline crack, Pool Guard EHB will fill it in. If it’s a bigger job then use a caulking agent Polyurethane Sealant, & if it’s a larger repair, a concrete repair is needed.

    What is the proper surface preparation for the pool? Surface must always be clean, dry and properly prepared prior to painting. Failure to do so will lead to eventually blistering and/or peeling. Previously painted surfaces should be Power Washed to remove loose paint or excessive chalking. Scrub the entire pool with a TSP (tri-sodium phosphate) solution to remove all dirt, oils, loose or peeling paint, and chalk. All surfaces should then be acid etched with a 15-20% solution of Muriatic Acid to achieve a medium grade sandpaper finish on bare or plaster and to remove mineral deposits on previously painted chlorinated rubber surfaces. Neutralize/rinse with TSP. Before applying the paint, the pool must be completely dry.

    How can I be sure the pool surface is dry prior to painting with a solvent
    base pool paint? We recommend that you tape clear plastic on the vertical wall and if no condensation shows, then the pool is dry & ready for overcoating.

    What pool paint can I put on bare gunite or an existing oil based pool paint? You should use the Pool Shield CRX Chlorinated Rubber Xtra. Just make sure the surface is free of any contaminants – no primer needed.

    POOL PAINT MIXING and THINNING 

    QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    Are Pool Paint Epoxy Catalysts Interchangeable? Mixing incompatible products or wrong catalysts with wrong bases will cause product failure.

    Are National Pool Finishes Products Tintable? Yes, as long as you use universal oil-based tints.

    Do I have to mix the entire kit of material at one time? Yes, the entire contents of the epoxy pool paint products must be used once the Part A & the Part B are mixed together.

    Do I have to mix the entire kit of material at one time? No, you must mix a 1:1 ratio. Whatever you mix you must use at that time.

    What Type Of Thinner Should I Use For The Pool Epoxy Coatings? Xylene or High Flash Naptha, which can be purchased at any local paint store or Home Depot/ Lowes, etc. Thin with 5-10% as necessary for proper flow out of the rolling process.

    Pool Paint | Preparation and Applications

    POOL PAINT PREPARATION

    QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    How can I be sure the pool surface is dry prior to painting my pool with a solvent base paint? We recommend that you tape clear plastic on the vertical wall and if no condensation shows, then the pool is dry and ready for overcoating.

    Pool Guard EHBHow do I repair my surface before painting my pool? If it’s a hairline crack, Pool Guard EHB will fill it in. If it’s a bigger job then use a caulking agent Polyurethane Sealant & if it’s a larger repair, a concrete repair is needed.

    What is the proper surface preparation for the pool? The pool surface must always be clean, dry and properly prepared prior to painting. Failure to do so will lead to eventually blistering and/or peeling. Previously painted pool surfaces should be Power Washed to remove loose paint or excessive chalking. Scrub the entire pool with a TSP (Tri-Sodium Phosphate) solution to remove all dirt, oils, loose or peeling paint, and chalk. All surfaces should then be acid etched with a 15-20% solution of Muriatic Acid to achieve a medium grade sandpaper finish on bare or plaster and to remove mineral deposits on previously painted chlorinated rubber surfaces. Neutralize/rinse with TSP. Before applying the pool paint, the pool must be completely dry.

    POOL PAINT APPLICATION

    QUESTIONS and ANSWERS

    Can I apply epoxy paint over chlorinated rubber paint or chlorinated rubber paint over epoxy paint? Different technologies are not compatible, so we recommend chlorinated rubber over chlorinated rubber, epoxy over epoxy. However, if you put our epoxy primer on first, then the different paint can be used with no issues.

    PoolShieldCRXCan I apply any pool paint over another type of pool paint? Aqua Pool Grip PrimerKote can be applied over anything, Pool Shield CRX over any chlorinated rubber paint, Pool Guard EHB over any epoxy paint. If you want to switch, you must use an pool epoxy primer first, such as, Pool Grip.

    How long can I recoat the pool with no sanding requirements for your Pool Guard EHBYou can recoat a pool up to 72 hours without sanding. If window is missed then sanding and/or a Muriatic acid wash must be done to “open” up the pool paint film for recoating.

    Pool Guard EHBCan you apply Pool Guard EHB over Pool Shield or Aqua Kote? You cannot apply Pool Guard EHB  over Pool Shield or Aqua Kote unless you put a primer on before.

    Can I apply epoxy paint over chlorinated rubber paint or chlorinated rubber paint over epoxy paint? Aqua Kote can be applied over anything, Pool Shield CRX over any chlorinated rubber paint, Pool Guard EHB  over any epoxy paint. If you want to switch, you must use an epoxy primer first.

    How long can I recoat the pool with no sanding requirements for your Pool Guard EHB? You can recoat a pool up to 72 hours without sanding. If window is missed then sanding and/ or a Muriatic acid wash must be done to “open” up the paint film for recoating.

    Pool Guard EHBCan I apply National products to a stainless steel or metal surfaced pool? Yes. Only if you sand properly, as steel is a tough surface for adhesion for pool paints, then apply Pool Guard EHB.

    How do I determine what type of paint is currently on my pool or spa? Take a paint chip and dip it in a strong solvent (Xylene), and if it dissolves, it’s a chlorinated rubber paint, then use Pool Shield CRX to overcoat it. If the paint chip doesn’t melt, then it’s an epoxy paint, then use Pool Guard EHB.

    Can the pool be shocked with chlorine immediately after refilling? No. We don’t recommend chlorine shock at all to clean pools, but we do recommend chlorine-free shock.

    Pool Guard EHBCan I paint a Fiberglass diving board? Yes. We recommend our Pool Guard EHB with 1 can of Non Skid additive (1 pound per gallon).

    Can I apply National Pool Finishes products over tile? No. National Pool Finishes pool paints are not recommended over tile.

    Can I coat over Sealers or Concrete Treated with Curing agents? Clear sealers can be painted over if proper steps of washing with TSP & etching with Muriatic acid are adhered to.

    Can I Apply National Products To Wood? Yes, Deck Kote products can be applied to concrete, fiberglass & wood.

    How Long Do I Have To Wait To Fill The Pool After I Paint? When Does The Pool Paint Cure? You need to wait 5 days to fill the pool after painting to make sure the paint cures properly, & add 1 additional day for every day of rain.

    Can I Use A Spray Gun To Apply National Pool Finishes Products? Yes, and details are on the label, buy a roller application is what is recommended (3/8’ nap roller), a good roller with a phenolic type core (not a card board interior).

    What happens if it rains after I coat my pool? Wait one extra day for every day of rain before refilling.

     

     

     

    Apply Paint Over Polyethylene, Polypropylene, ABS, and PET/PBT Blends

    You can apply paint over Polyethylene, Polypropylene, ABS, and PET/PBT Blends with proper surface preparation and primer.

    1. First wipes down the surface with a 50/50 Isopropyl Alcohol such as Denatured Alcohol to remove any contaminants prior to sanding.

    2. Sand the surface with 60-80 grit sandpaper.

    3. Wipe down the surface again with 50/50 Isopropyl Alcohol ( Denatured Alcohol ) to remove all sanding residue.

    4. Apply 3M Tape Primer over a small section.M23929

    5. Apply a small test section of the desired Topcoat paint. Since there are so many type of paints, it is recommended to perform an adhesion test on the small area painted. Once the paint has dried perform a hatch test. Use a razor blade to cut into the paint and the primer and draw a 2-3 inch line. You should follow this at least 3 more parallel lines about 1cm apart. Then cut 4 more perpendicular line again about 1cm apart. It should like a large tic-tac-toe game. Finally, apply duct tape firmly and then pull the tape off quickly. If you have any paint or primer on the tape the adhesion is poor. If there is no paint or primer on the tape then it is safe to apply the primer and paint over the entire surface.

    This application and test can be used for topside paints and bottom paints.

    Filling a Hole in Fiberglass

    When you are trying to repair a small hole in fiberglass, the best type of product to use is a premium epoxy. This will insure a proper repair and will not allow for shrinking of the material and create a water tight seal.

    We recommend the Hawk Epoxy Kit. It contains the epoxy resin, catalyst and filler for the job. Watch the video below to see the steps needed to perform a small hole repair.